PREVENTION OF PNEUMONIA

Running Head: PREVENTION OF PNEUMONIA
Prevention of Pneumonia
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From the article pulmonary infections in the returned traveler, it can be denoted that there are a wide variety of infections which are present with the pulmonary symptoms. In this regards, the clinicians have a role in differentiating the various causes of such diseases. Consequently, there are various risks attributed to the travel related pulmonary diseases which are highly dependent on the travel destinations as well as the duration one stays in such destination. Moreover, it is of on the activities undertaken. This disease includes pneumonia which is mainly contracted when one travel and exposes oneself to the cold places which cause chest and pulmonary infection (Trimble, Moffat & Collins, 2017).
From the article titled the Novel vaccination approaches to prevent tuberculosis in children, it is denoted that the tuberculosis is an underappreciated problem since it causes approximately ten percent of deaths in the world. Children are perceived to be susceptible to the mycobacterium infection causing tuberculosis. The vaccinations which are provided in order to prevent tuberculosis have been found to be not efficient especially when it comes to eliminating pulmonary tuberculosis which is also linked to pneumonia. In this regards, it is necessary that new vaccines against tuberculosis, especially for children to be manufactured so that it can boost the induced immunity so that they can be protected (Triccas & Counoupas, 2016).
From the article Non-adherence to community oral antibiotic treatment in children with fast breathing pneumonia in Malawi– secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study, it can be noted that despite the significant progress being made, the disease of pneumonia is still the leading cause of the deaths especially to the children under the age of five. This has been attributed to the poor adherence of the antibiotics which are associated further to the treatment failure on the world health organizations. In this regards, there should be an improvement in the adherence so that the outcomes will be improved (Nightingale,. et al. 2016).
Additionally, from the article Tuberculosis and pneumonia in HIV-infected children: an overview, it is depicted that pneumonia always has been the most common cause of hospitalization and mostly death in young children. Notably, with high immunodeficiency virus, the infected individuals are perceived to carry the high burden of infections of the lower respiratory tracts from the virus and bacteria. Additionally, it is depicted that there is also an increasing recognition of impacts of Utero exposure to HIV as well as the general health of the exposed and the infants who have been infected. It is evident also that the exposed individuals may have various specific immune deficits which are deemed to increase their vulnerability to the respiratory pathogens (Rabie & Goussard, 2016).
Consequently, from the article How and when to use common biomarkers in community-acquired pneumonia, it is as well noted that the community acquired pneumonia has been the leading cause of death globally. The young individuals and the elders are depicted to be the ones who are more vulnerable. The antibiotics which have been introduced have been found to have not changed the outcomes of the patients suffering from this pneumonia. It is worth noting that the interventions which have led to the improvement of the outcomes include the immunomodulatory agent’s which entails macrolides and the corticosteroids (Shaddock, 2016).
Article on The definition and classification of pneumonia shows that the classification of pneumonia depends on the results in the widespread and the empirical of the unnecessary antimicrobials which contribute to the pathogen resistance and the contribution to the heterogeneity which exists among the groups of subjects which are found in research causing the classification bias and various effects of the pneumonia. In order to ensure that the infections of pneumonia are contained, the specific infections with various characteristics are ideal and thus can be used in limited use since the identification of the aetiological organisms can be used in classifying pneumonia. However, the 9nvestigation regarding homogeneous pneumonia should be carried out so that it can be used in groupings in achieving the rapid advances in the field (Mackenzie, 2016).
From the article Macrolide resistance in pneumococci—is it relevant?, it is explained that the macrolide antibiotics have been found to be used widely for various indications which include pneumonia infections. Notably, both have been found to have high as well as low-level resistance to macrolides which are increasing in the pneumococci around the world. In this regards, the macrolide resistance in the pneumococci is perceived to be of limited clinical relevance where the lactams have been found to remain the mainstay of such treatment of the infection. This entails moderate and severe pneumonia despite the data suggesting that ability of the monotherapy to treat pneumococcal infections (Cheng, & Jenney, 2016).
Notably, the article Anatomical site-specific contributions of pneumococcal virulence determinants explain that the Streptococcus pneumonia is an opportunistic pathogen which is associated with the significant morbidity as well as mortality globally. This leads to the cause of various wide ranges of diseases which include the sinusitis and conjunctivitis which are indispensable for the invasive diseases. This shows the contribution of pneumococcal virulence which leads to a determination of the survival and persistence in the context of the various anatomical sites. This further leads to evasion of mucociliary clearance which allows the establishment of lower respiratory infections of the tract (Shenoy, & Orihuela, 2016).
The Neonatal article pneumonia in sub-Saharan Africa describes that the neonatal pneumonia is perceived to be a devastating condition.This is because various deaths which occur in the sub-Saharan Africa is attributed to pneumonia and other preventable diseases. Such diseases have been widely attributed to the bacterial and fungal infections which have the tendency of dominating the respiratory pathogens which entail the syncytial virus and influenza.
References
Cheng. A. C & Adam W. J. Jenney. W.J. A (2016). Macrolide resistance in pneumococci—is it relevant?
Mackenzie. G. (2016). The definition and classification of pneumonia.
Nightingale, R. Colbourn, T. Mukanga, D. Mankhambo, L. Lufesi, McCollum. N. D. & King. C. (2016). Non-adherence to community oral-antibiotic treatment in children with fast-breathing pneumonia in Malawi– secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study
Rabie. H. & Goussard. P. (2016). Tuberculosis and pneumonia in HIV-infected children: an overview.
Shaddock. E. (2016). How and when to use common biomarkers in community-acquired pneumonia.
Shenoy. A.T. & Orihuela. J C. (2016). Anatomical site-specific contributions of pneumococcal virulence determinants
Triccas J. A. & Counoupas . C (2016). Novel vaccination approaches to prevent tuberculosis in children.

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