Iraq’s Weapons of Mass Destruction Programs
Your Intelligence text offers a “box” on “Iraq’s Nuclear Program—A Cautionary Tale.” There are many questions about the use and misuse of intelligence. There are hints of incredible intelligence successes, but these are never revealed. Instead, we are left with many news accounts of intelligence failures. Intelligence is central to our national interest. A primary purpose is to prevent strategic surprise.
Who controls reconnaissance watches the enemy;
Who watches the enemy perceives the threat;
Who perceives the threat shapes alternatives;
Who shapes alternatives determines the response.
William E. Burrows, paraphrasing/updating Sir Halford Makinder in Deep Black.
Source: Burrows, W. E. (1986). Deep black: The startling truth behind America’s top-secret spy satellites. New York, NY: Berkley Books.
Countries with Nuclear Weapons Capability:
Acknowledged: Britain, China, France, India, Pakistan, Russia, United States, North Korea
Abandoned: South Africa—Constructed but then voluntarily dismantled six uranium bombs. Belarus, Kazakhstan, Ukraine–When the Soviet Union broke up, these former states possessed nuclear warheads that they have since given up.
Students will understand the intelligence situation in Iraq prior to the use of force.
_Review Iraq’s Weapons of Mass Destruction Programs, CIA Intelligence Report.
_Review the document, United Nations Security Council Resolutions on Iraq.
I sent the PDF in Additional Materials.
_Look through the evidence contained in this comprehensive report- Iraq’s Weapons of Mass Destruction Programs and comment on the following questions: Your post must be substantive. Remember to use proper sentence structure, grammar, punctuation, and spelling.
What evidence is there that Iraq was producing, or seeking to produce, WMD?
How did Iraq break international laws?
Was international intervention deemed necessary in light of this information?
What did the international community do before using military force?
What began as an individual protest in Tunisia resonated across North Africa in what became known as the Arab Spring. Mohamed Bouazizi sold fruits and vegetables from a wooden cart in Sidi Bouzid, Tunisia. He did not have a permit to sell his goods. A police officer told him to hand over his cart and Bouazizi refused. The officer slapped him. Bouazizi marched in protest and set himself on fire. Immediately, protests started in the city and the moment captured on cell phones and uploaded to the Internet. This incident was the spark that set off an uprising across the Middle East.
The twenty-first-century revolution may be based more on tweets, gigabytes, and YouTube than the charisma of leaders and other factors that formerly shaped intrastate conflicts. Social media conversations about freedom and democracy preceded Arab Spring uprisings according to a new study.
Philip Howard, Associate Professor of Communication at the University of Washington, stated “People who shared interest in democracy built extensive social networks and organized political action. Social media became a critical part of the toolkit for greater freedom.”
Throughout the entire Middle East and North Africa, people participated in the conversation through social media. Today, grievances can rapidly develop into major protests and civil unrest.
Students will be able to assess the role of social media in intrastate conflict, especially during the Arab Spring uprisings.
_Review the material in your Text on social media, resource mobilization, and opportunity for civil war.
_Read “Arab Uprising: Country by Country,” BBC News World. Click on any of the 12 countries to learn what happened during the Arab Spring and where we are now.